Direct scoring by eyes under a microscope is the most preferred and least expensive method for IHC, IF and ISH staining analysis. We provide the following semi-quantitative analyses for nuclear, membrane and cytoplasmic markers on cell smears/spins and tissue sections: 1. Basic analysis including negative (- or 0), weak (+ or 1), moderate (++ or 2) and strong (+++ or 3) for average staining intensity, and positive rate (%) of the target cells across the section under analysis. 2. Semi-quantitative H-Score analysis - This is obtained by the formula: (3 x percentage of strongly stained target cells) + (2 x percentage of moderately stained target cells) + (1 x percentage of weakly stained target cells), giving a range of 0 to 300. 3. Detailed semi-quantitative analysis - Detailed staining intensity results are recorded as: "0" is negative. "0.5" is borderline staining with no significance. "1" is weak staining. "1.5" is weak staining with foci of moderate staining. "2" is moderate staining. "2.5" is moderate staining with foci of strong staining. "3" is homogeneous strong staining. "3.5" is very strong and homogeneous staining with no significant background. "4" is over staining usually with background staining. Any figure in between can be described towards the description of the higher end, for example, 2.7 can be considered as strong staining. The average positive rate (%) of the target cells across each section is also recorded.
Semi quantitative image analysis